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Annotated Bibliography

The purpose of this bibliography is to help candidates identify resources that may be useful for enhancing their knowledge of the content covered on the Foundations of Reading assessment as they prepare to take the assessment. For each reference cited, the bibliography provides a brief summary of the types of information covered. The bibliography is not intended to offer a comprehensive listing of all potentially useful resources for preparing for the Foundations of Reading assessment, nor is it intended to be a substitute for coursework and other types of teacher preparation. Please note that candidates are not expected to familiarize themselves with all of the materials in the bibliography and that successful performance on the Foundations of Reading assessment will not require familiarity with any of the specific materials listed below.


  • Resources have been organized by subareas according to their primary area(s) of emphasis. In addition to texts, a list of relevant articles is also included, all of which are currently available online.
  • Several of the resources listed under Subarea III are comprehensive textbooks that address all of the Foundations of Reading subareas. These resources are preceded by an asterisk (*).

Subarea I—Foundations of Reading Development


Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M.R., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2015). Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction (6th edition ). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book emphasizes the importance of word study and explains how to teach it in order to promote students' phonics and spelling skills as well as their vocabulary development, thus making them more effective readers and writers.

Beck, I.L., & Beck, M.E. (2013). Making Sense of Phonics: The Hows and Whys (2nd edition ). New York: The Guilford Press.

This book provides tools, guidelines, and strategies for planning and implementing explicit, systematic phonics instruction in kindergarten through third grade to promote students' development of effective decoding skills, including multisyllabic decoding skills, and reading fluency, thus building a strong foundation for reading comprehension.

Fox, B.J. (2014). Phonics and Word Study for the Teacher of Reading: Programmed for Self-Instruction (11th edition ). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book provides a comprehensive guide to teaching phonics and other word identification skills, such as syllabication and structural or morphemic analysis. Each section includes pre- and postlesson tests for the reader, as well as an answer key that cross-references each question with the pages in the book that address a question's given topic.

Moats, L.C., Glaser, D., & Tolman, C. (2005 to 2014). Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling ( L E T R S ). Modules 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 10. Voyager Sopris Learning.

This series of modules was designed for both beginning and more experienced early childhood and elementary school teachers of reading and spelling to help them become more effective literacy educators. Each module addresses research-based instructional strategies and includes a book and training handouts focused on a key aspect of literacy development. The modules listed above focus respectively on phonemic awareness, how English spelling works, fluency, phonics, beginning spelling and writing, and syllabication and advanced decoding.

Rasinski, T.V., & Reutzel, R. (2010). The Fluent Reader: Oral & Silent Reading Strategies for Building Fluency, Word Recognition & Comprehension (2nd edition ). New York: Scholastic Professional Books.

This book provides a research-based overview of reading fluency instruction and offers teachers a practical guide for implementing research-based instruction and activities to promote students' fluency development.

Samuels, S.J., & Farstrup, A.E. ( Editors ). (2006). What Research Has to Say About Fluency Instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This collection of articles presents fluency research on a variety of topics, including the development of fluency in readers, factors that affect reading fluency, fluency assessment, and supporting the fluency development of struggling readers and English language learners.


Ehri, L.C. (2014). "Orthographic Mapping in the Acquisition of Sight Word Reading, Spelling Memory, and Vocabulary Learning." Scientific Studies of Reading, 18(1), pages 5 to 21. Irvine, CA: Society for the Scientific Study of Reading.

This article explains how children's learning related to word reading changes over time and describes research-based instruction designed to help children at various phases of word reading develop the automaticity they need to become fluent readers.

Joshi, R.M., Treiman, R., Carreker, S., & Moats, L.C. (2009). "How Words Cast Their Spell: Spelling Is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization." American Educator, Winter 2008 to 2009, pages 6 to 16, 42 to 43. Washington, D.C.: American Federation of Teachers.

This comprehensive, research-based article explains why English spelling is in fact quite predictable once one has developed basic knowledge about language components such as morphology, syllabication, and word origin and history. The article provides teachers with guidance in how to assess spelling as well as how to sequence and implement explicit spelling instruction throughout the elementary grades.

Kuhn, M.R., & Stahl, S.A. (2003). "Fluency: A Review of Developmental and Remedial Practices." Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), pages 3 to 21. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, Inc.

This comprehensive, research-based article reviews which approaches have proven to be more or less effective in improving the fluency of struggling readers. The article addresses the implications of fluency research for instruction related to all the key indicators of fluency.


Subarea II—Development of Reading Comprehension


Buehl, D. (2011). Developing Readers in the Academic Disciplines. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This book explains how to promote students' development of disciplinary literacy by helping them become effective readers, writers, and thinkers across the curriculum. The author provides insights and instructional tools to support students in navigating textbooks and other academic texts in various subject areas.

Beck, I.L., & Sandora, C. (2016). Illuminating Comprehension and Close Reading. New York: The Guilford Press.

This book provides guidelines and sample lessons for promoting students' development of reading comprehension and ability to engage in close reading of complex texts in grades K through 8, including strategies for supporting text-based questioning and discussions.

Duke, N.K. (2014). Inside Information: Developing Powerful Readers and Writers of Informational Text Through Project-Based Instruction. New York: Scholastic Professional Books.

This book explains how to build reading and writing skills in students in grades K through 5 in several major informational text types, including informative/explanatory, procedural/how-to, persuasive, nonfiction narrative, and biographical, by using project-based units and emphasizing reading and writing for authentic purposes and audiences.

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2015). Text-Dependent Questions, Grades K through 5: Pathways to Close and Critical Reading. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

This book addresses how to strategically scaffold students' deep comprehension of texts through four levels of questioning (i.e., what the text says, how the text works, what the text means, and what the text inspires the reader to do). The text provides extended classroom examples that demonstrate how to use text-dependent questions to enhance text comprehension as part of a social process that involves both student-to-student discussions and teacher-to-learner interactions.

Graves, M.F. (2016). The Vocabulary Book: Learning & Instruction (2nd edition ). New York: Teachers College Press.

This book emphasizes the importance of a multifaceted approach to vocabulary instruction and explains in detail key research-based strategies for promoting vocabulary development, including teaching powerful word-learning strategies such as morphology. The text also includes chapters on differentiated vocabulary instruction and how to address the unique needs of English language learners.

Hiebert, E., & Kamil, M. ( Editors ). (2005). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary: Bringing Research to Practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

This collection of articles by renowned researchers in the field of vocabulary is an outgrowth of the Focus on Vocabulary conference sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. Articles address the full range of students in current classrooms. Of special note for early childhood and elementary teachers: Cunningham, A., "Vocabulary Growth through Independent Reading and Reading Aloud to Children ( pages 45 to 68) and Carlo, M.S., August, D., & Snow, C.E., "Sustained Vocabulary-Learning Strategies for English-Language Learners ( pages 137 to 153).

Moats, L.C., Glaser, D., & Tolman, C. (2009 & 2010). Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling ( L E T R S ). Modules 4 and 6. Voyager Sopris Learning.

These modules address research-based instructional strategies and best practices in vocabulary development and text comprehension, respectively.


Barnes, E.M., Grifenhagen, J.F., & Dickinson, D.K. (2016). "Academic Language in Early Childhood Classrooms." The Reading Teacher, 70(1), pages 39 to 48. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article explains strategies for helping children understand the difference between book language and conversational language. The authors present methods for teaching academic language in PreK through Grade 3 classrooms throughout the curriculum and also as part of daily classroom routines.

Boelé, A.L. (2016). "Text-Dependent Questions: Reflecting and Transcending the Text." The Reading Teacher, 70(2), pages 217 to 220. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This brief but thorough article clarifies the difference between text-dependent questions that prompt students to reflect directly on a text's content and those that encourage students to transcend the text. The author provides question models to illustrate how to help students transcend a text by questioning, challenging, and evaluating the legitimacy of an author's message.

Cain, K. (2009). "Making Sense of Text: Skills That Support Text Comprehension and Its Development." Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 35(2), pages 11 to 14. International Dyslexia Association.

This brief article describes three powerful text-processing skills that promote reading comprehension: integration and inference, comprehension monitoring, and knowledge and use of text structures. The author explains how to teach these skills in order to support students' development of reading comprehension.

Ferris, S.J. (2014). "Revoicing: A Tool to Engage All Learners in Academic Conversations." The Reading Teacher, 67(5), pages 353 to 357. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article describes a technique for promoting rich academic discussions among students. In addition to including sample question-and-response frames to scaffold students' academic conversations, the author also explains in detail how to model revoicing as one of several strategies that students can use within an "Accountable Talk" framework.

Gallagher, M.A., & Anderson, B.E. (2016). "Get All 'Jazzed Up' for Vocabulary Instruction: Strategies That Engage." The Reading Teacher, 70(3), pages 273 to 282. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article describes research-based strategies for vocabulary instruction that promote word consciousness and shared discussions around vocabulary. The authors demonstrate the approaches through detailed descriptions of classroom scenarios.

Larson, S.C. (2014). "Using a Generative Vocabulary Matrix in the Learning Workshop." The Reading Teacher, 68(2), pages 113 to 125. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article describes an approach that classroom teachers can use to integrate the teaching of tiered vocabulary, synthesis of information from multiple sources, and content-area learning into a unit of study. The author explains how to promote students' engagement in vocabulary and concept development related to a topic through purposeful academic discussions and development of a student-generated vocabulary matrix.

McTigue, E., Douglass, A., Wright, K.L., Hodges, T.S., & Franks, A.D. (2015). "Beyond the Story Map: Inferential Comprehension via Character Perspective." The Reading Teacher, 69(1), pages 91 to 101. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article presents a strategy for teaching multiple character perspectives in order to promote students' comprehension of literary/narrative texts. The authors provide an explicit graphic organizer that connects a story event to two different characters' reactions to the event and requires students to provide evidence for their thinking.

Roehling, J.V., Hebert, M., Nelson, J.R., & Bohaty, J.J. (2017). "Text Structure Strategies for Improving Expository Reading Comprehension." The Reading Teacher, 71(1), pages 71 to 82. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article provides teachers with student-friendly descriptions of the five most common expository text structures. The authors also present research-based instructional strategies for helping students learn how to use text structure to improve their reading comprehension of informational/expository texts.

Wolsey, T.D., Smetana, L., & Grisham, D.L. (2015). "Vocabulary Plus Technology: An After-Reading Approach to Develop Deep Word Learning." The Reading Teacher, 68(6), pages 449 to 458. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article describes a vocabulary self-collection strategy (VSS) in which students use technology to promote academic vocabulary development. This after-reading instructional routine takes advantage of social interactions and technology to promote students' word inquiry, deep word learning, and concept development.


Subarea III—Reading Assessment and Instruction


Note: Subarea III texts marked with an asterisk (*) address all Foundations of Reading subareas.

August, D., & Shanahan, T. ( Editors ). (2008). Developing Reading and Writing in Second-Language Learners: Lessons from the Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. New York: Routledge, Center for Applied Linguistics, and the International Reading Association, Inc.

This book presents the findings of the U.S. National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth, explaining the results of empirical research on the literacy development of language-minority students.

Birsh, J.R. ( Editor ). (2011). Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills (3rd edition ). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.

This book offers strategies for multisensory instruction in literacy skills, including phonological awareness, alphabetic skills, spelling and grammar, reading accuracy and fluency, reading comprehension, handwriting and composition, and study skills. The author includes chapters devoted to English language learners, students with reading disabilities, and older struggling readers.

*Calderón, M. (2011). Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K through 5. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

This book addresses a range of essential topics related to promoting English language learners' reading development, including how to differentiate reading instruction for students with varying levels of English language proficiency, how to address the challenges of applying a Response to Intervention (RtI) model with English language learners, strategies for building a strong literacy foundation among younger English language learners, and strategies for promoting English language learners' vocabulary and comprehension development from kindergarten through grade 5.

*Carnine, D., Jungjohann, K., Kame'enui, E., Silbert, J., & Tarver, S. (2006). Teaching Struggling and At-Risk Readers: A Direct Instruction Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

This book provides detailed descriptions of how to teach reading skills explicitly and systematically to address the needs of struggling and at-risk readers. It addresses multiple components of reading instruction with particular emphasis on instruction in decoding.

*Carnine, D., Silbert, J., Kame'enui, E., Slocum, T., & Travers, P. (2017). Direct Instruction Reading (6th edition ). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book emphasizes the importance of direct, explicit instruction in reading development and includes sections on beginning reading, decoding, and comprehension. Each section covers specific, essential skills, discusses how to teach them, relates research findings, and provides sample applied exercises for teachers to reinforce their understanding of the skills and how to teach them.

*Farstrup, A.E., & Samuels, S.J. ( Editors ). (2011). What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction (4th edition ). Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This collection of articles focuses on a variety of topics, including instruction in alphabetic basics, fluency, and comprehension; reading motivation; teaching diverse populations; implementing a tiered intervention model of reading; promoting independent reading; and issues related to reading motivation, technology, assessment, and effective school-home relationships to foster reading.

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2012). Text Complexity: Raising Rigor in Reading. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, Inc.

This book describes in user-friendly language the quantitative and qualitative factors that determine text complexity. The authors explain how to measure and analyze various dimensions of text complexity as well as how to use this information to match readers to text. The book also includes a chapter on research-based strategies for supporting students' comprehension of complex texts.

*Gunning, T.G. (2018). Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties (6th edition ). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book provides a comprehensive, integrated look at reading assessment, diagnosis, and intervention for students with reading and writing difficulties. The author offers many strategies and tools that classroom teachers can use to develop struggling readers' and writers' skills in word recognition, vocabulary development, reading comprehension, and written responses to texts.

*Gunning, T.G. (2015). Creating Literacy Instruction for All Students (9th edition ). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book addresses assessment and instruction in the essential components of reading instruction, including emergent literacy skills, phonics and other word-identification strategies, vocabulary and comprehension development, and approaches to teaching literary and informational texts. Chapters also address diversity in the literacy classroom and managing a literacy program. Special features include case studies, sample lessons, and reading lists for reinforcing specific reading skills with students.

*Honig, B., Diamond, L., & Gutlohn, L. (2013). Teaching Reading Sourcebook (2nd edition ). Novato, CA: Arena Press and Berkeley, CA: Consortium on Reaching Excellence in Education, Inc. (CORE).

This book includes sections on word structure, early literacy, decoding and word recognition, reading fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension, and a comprehensive reading model based on a tiered approach to reading instruction. Each chapter includes a variety of teaching strategies and sample lessons.

Lesaux, N.K., & Marietta, S.H. (2012). Making Assessment Matter: Using Test Results to Differentiate Reading Instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.

This book provides a comprehensive framework for using various types of assessment (e.g., diagnostic, screening, progress monitoring, outcome measures) to inform instructional planning in reading. The authors use case studies to help explain how to use data from both code-based reading assessments and meaning-based reading assessments to adjust instruction and improve students' reading performance.

Moats, L.C., Glaser, D., & Tolman, C. (2004 & 2009). Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling ( L E T R S ). Modules 1 and 8. Voyager Sopris Learning.

These modules focus on the challenge of learning to read and the use of assessment for prevention and early intervention, respectively, and address research-based best practices in reading assessment and instruction.

Moats, L.C. (2010). Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers (2nd edition ). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.

This book explains the language essentials early childhood and elementary teachers need to know in order to be effective reading educators. It includes case studies illustrating literacy development; samples and interpretations of student work; exercises teachers can use to test and reinforce their own knowledge of language and literacy development, including spelling development; and practical resources for supporting research-based reading and spelling instruction in the classroom.

Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2017). Reading, Writing, and Learning in E S L : A Resource Book for Teaching K through 12 English Learners (7th edition ). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book provides information to help teachers improve literacy instruction for English language learners. Chapters focus on a range of key topics, including second-language acquisition theories and practices, sheltered instruction, emergent literacy, thematic instruction, assessment, and content-area reading and writing.

Rasinski, T., Pytash, K., & Ferdig, R. ( Editors ). (2015). Using Technology to Enhance Reading: Innovative Approaches to Literacy Instruction. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

This book addresses an array of topics related to reading instruction and technology from technology-based strategies for supporting students' development in specific areas of reading to the development of foundational skills for reading digital texts. Chapters include specific classroom examples and suggestions.

*Temple, C., Ogle, D., Crawford, A., Freppon, P., & Temple, C. (2018). All Children Read: Teaching for Literacy in Today's Diverse Classrooms (5th edition ). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

This book addresses the knowledge and skills teachers need to meet the literacy needs of all students, including struggling readers and English learners. Chapters focus on multiple dimensions of literacy instruction, including knowledge of language, learners, and effective literacy environments, as well as assessment and instruction in specific areas of literacy development.


Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2015). "Checking for Understanding Digitally During Content Area Learning." The Reading Teacher, 69(3), pages 281 to 286. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article describes various strategies classroom teachers can use to check for understanding during content-area reading. The authors describe a variety of digital tools in terms of their use as efficient resources for teachers to analyze and document how students find, use, produce, and share information.

Gambrell, L.B. (2011). "Seven Rules of Engagement: What's Most Important to Know About Motivation to Read." The Reading Teacher, 65(3), pages 172 to 178. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article focuses on the importance of reading engagement to reading comprehension and the characteristics of the motivated or engaged reader. The author discusses seven research-based "rules of engagement" and presents classroom tips for enhancing reading motivation.

Jang, B.G., Conradi, K., McKenna, M.C., & Jones, J.S. (2015). "Motivation: Approaching an Elusive Concept Through the Factors That Shape It." The Reading Teacher, 69(2), pages 239 to 247. Newark, DE: International Literacy Association, Inc.

This article connects motivational constructs related to reading to effective instructional practices that lead to high levels of student engagement in reading.

*Subarea III texts marked with an asterisk (*) address all Foundations of Reading subareas.

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